For centuries, scientists have been trying to identify and measure what factors make some people more successful in life than the others? Today it’s widely accepted that one of major predictors of a person’s success is their intelligence or IQ.
But what is IQ exactly? How should we decipher what IQ stands for? And what do IQ tests actually measure?
We’re going to break down how IQ works and what standardized tests are actually measuring.
What Is IQ Short For?
IQ stands for for intelligence quotient. It was first coined by William Stern back in 1912. Stern was a German psychologist interested in the field of human intelligence.
Before Stern, there was no standardized measure of cognitive ability. But Stern believed in a form of generalized intelligence that could be accurately measured under the right circumstances.
It was from Stern’s theory of generalized intelligence that the first IQ tests were born. But what do these tests actually measure?
What Do IQ Tests Measure?
It’s not how smart you are, but how are you smart.— Jim Kwik, trainer of Mindvalley’s Superbrain Quest
It’s a common misconception that IQ tests measure intelligence. Or rather, that they’re the most accurate measure of intelligence.
So, what is intelligence, anyway? There are many competing theories on the different types of intelligence we possess. And IQ tests measure very specific forms of intelligence.
Two of the most common forms of intelligence tests are the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) test.
Different IQ tests have different types of questions. The ones taken during job applications are different from the ones students take when enrolling in university.
However, they all have one thing in common: they are standardized. An IQ test can, therefore, measure the capacity of a three specific types of intelligence.
1. Verbal intelligence
As the name implies, verbal intelligence is the intelligence of language. It helps us identify patterns between words and to use language to communicate more effectively.
Those with verbal or linguistic intelligence enjoy reading and writing. They are skilled with word puzzles and have the ability to quickly learn new languages.
2. Logical-mathematical intelligence
Logical-mathematical intelligence comes from the capacity to form logical relationships and use deductive reasoning. Individuals with this form of intelligence are rational, objective, strategic, organized, and analytical.
3. Spatial intelligence
According to an American developmental psychologist Howard Gardner, spatial intelligence is the intelligence of visual thinking. With the help of spatial intelligence, we’re able to manipulate three-dimensional objects in our mind’s eye.
Those with spatial intelligence are excellent navigators. They are keen to notice fine details and pick up on subtle patterns with ease.
What Is the IQ of an Average Person?
The average person has an IQ score between 85 and 115. Only a little more than 2% of the population scores higher than 130 or below 70.
How is IQ calculated?
Your intelligence quotient is calculated by two important factors: the number of correct answers you provide on the test, and the length of time it takes you to arrive at those answers.
That’s right: an IQ test measures not only whether your answer is correct, but how long it took you to answer the question.
The median score on a standardized IQ test is 100. When assembled together, the scores follow a bell curve, which peaks in the middle where the greatest concentration of similar scores is.
Scores then range up or down by 15 IQ points, which is called a standard deviation.
What is an IQ level?
We know that IQ stands for intelligence quotient. But what is an intelligence quotient and how do IQ levels work?
An IQ level is the range of the score a person can have. If you possess an IQ of 125 points, you likely have an above-average intellect. If you fall within the upper 2% of highly gifted individuals, you’re eligible to join the genius’ club – Mensa society.
And while understanding what IQ stands for and how the intelligence quotient works are important, it’s also important to keep something else in mind:
There are many new theories that have begun to emerge in the field of human intelligence. It’s become widely acknowledged that the standardized IQ test is limited in its capacity.
The IQ test can measure only a few forms of intelligence. But today, there are scientists who suggest we actually possess up to nine different types of intelligence.
The bottom line is: everyone possesses their own special gifts and abilities. Don’t judge yourself or another on how well you score on an IQ test. Your brain is an incredible machine, and capable of learning and developing more than you realize!