What Are Carl Jung’s Cognitive Functions And Why Are They So Exciting?

What are cognitive functions?
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Our personalities create our personal realities, and our personalities are a product of our unique beliefs and cognitive functions. Our cognitive functions are our ways of perceiving and judging our internal and external worlds.

One of the most influential psychoanalysts of our time, Carl Jung, spent a great deal of his life trying to understand our unique cognitive functions and how they shape our personalities. In this article, we are excited to present to you Carl Jung’s Theory of Cognitive Functions, the role each function plays in our perception of the world, and how exciting that is for our personal evolution.

What is Carl Jung’s Theory of Cognitive Functions?

Carl Jung boiled down our cognitive processes into two main basic functions: perceiving (taking in new information) and judging (making decisions based off of that information).

However, it became evident that even with these two basic functions, there were still 4 completely different ways of perceiving and 4 completely different ways of judging. Collectively, these 8 varying processes are known as Carl Jung’s 8 Cognitive Functions.

Every person has certain strengths and weaknesses — how these strengths and weakness are oriented within your cognitive functions can define your personality type.

The Jung Typology Test analyses your personal orientation of these cognitive processes and shows which of the 16 personality types you most align with.

Before we dive into the cognitive functions, it’s important to have a good understanding of the difference between the two opposing “attitudes” that affect them: extraversion and introversion.

The shoe that fits one person pinches another; there is no recipe for living that suits all cases.” — Carl Jung


“Extraverted” means happening external to your mind. An extraverted person is generally more oriented to the external world — all of the people, places, and experiences that happen in the real, physical world outside of themselves.  


“Introverted” means happening inside your mind. An introverted person is generally much more oriented with their internal world — all of the feelings, thoughts, and ideas that transcend space and time within their minds.

Does our brain structure affect our personality?

Perceiving Functions

Extraverted Sensing (Se)

This type of perception happens when you are using your 5 senses to take in information from the physical world.

Introverted Sensing (Si)

Introverted sensing happens when you remember and reflect upon an experience or sensation you’ve previously experienced. For example, when you think about how the weather was last week, or reminisce about the beautiful song a bird sang on your walk yesterday.

Extraverted Intuiting (Ne)

Extraverted intuiting happens when you are able to quickly brainstorm to see possible futures and make connections between people and events in the real world.

Introverted Intuiting (Ni)

Introverted intuiting happens you are able to unconsciously download insights that seem to come from nowhere. This tends to happen to people a lot when they are in the shower and have those brilliant “aha” moments.

Judging Functions

Extraverted Thinking (Te)

Extraverted thinking happens when you make decisions about the world via objective facts and inductive reasoning.

Introverted Thinking (Ti)

Introverted thinking happens when you reflect on ideas, data, and theories that exist within your mind. This type of thinking is much more subjective and involves deductive reasoning.

Extraverted Feeling (Fe)

Extraverted feeling happens when you make decisions based on a more global value system than a personal one.

Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Introverted feeling happens when you make decisions based on your own personal values.

Are these functions affected by the structure of the brain?

Do these different cognitive functions have anything to do with a person’s unique brain structure? As in, are we limited to the confines of our innate brain structure?


In fact, we aren’t limited at all. This is the most exciting part — it’s all a matter of each person’s unique preference of perceiving.

Turns out, these different cognitive functions are only able to be measured by the presence of certain neurochemicals. Neurochemicals are produced by our thoughts and beliefs systems, which we can change.

Why is this so exciting to our personal evolution?

This means that you can change your cognitive functions and personality as you change throughout your life, regardless of the structure of the brain. You are not ever stuck with one personality — you get to constantly change shape and color and form as you desire.

Your personality creates your personal reality — and you create your personality based on the thoughts you choose to think and the person you desire to become. Whether you choose to look more outside of yourself or inside yourself, be the Thinker or the Doer, the Commander or the Nurturer, the Visionary or the Composer… You are limitless and ever-changing.

We hope you share in this excitement with us and have fun playing with life’s endless possibilities.

What personality type are you? What kind of personal reality do you wish to create for yourself? Share with us in the comments below!

Natasha Wanderly

Natasha is a happy no-mad with a love for living lucidly, dancing with fire, and talking to strangers. From living with Shamans in the Amazon to studying hieroglyphs in Egypt, she is always on some type of adventure. Every day, she wakes up with two goals: 1.) Be here 2.) Be love.

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